Continuation of the 3d pipeline….


Democratise can be defined as to making something more accessible to the mass and make it possible for more people to understand.(Rose, 2014) Democratise in 3D grAphics means the capability of artist to develop 3d Graphics on their own with readily available programs and without the need of large computers or studios.

Computer graphics have come a long way from simply scattered line to realistic animations. 1950s was when the graphics initiated, it was developed by the navy to calculate the trajectory.

Screen Shot 2015-03-05 at 23.30.21.png

With the advancement of technology overtime 3D graphics got democratized as this advancement made tools and softwares more affordable the advancement in 3D graphics made heavy softwares like adobe aftereffects to work flawlessly on PCs and laptops. so basically technology democratised 3D graphics overtime.(Ojo, 2015)


Ptex is a alternative approach to texturing, basically it does not use the UV mapping and it uses a perf ace texturing technique. So in Ptex each face can have a seperate layer and each layer can have a different resolution. The main purpose of its development was rendering, when high and very defined texture is required multiple of UV tiles on each layer are required, which means there were more texture files than surface files and the load of rendering would kill the servers.

Ptex allows us to paint an object before asset work, it will eliminate texture based problems in now and in future assets. Less load on the servers due to less layers.Ptex allows in solving the above texturing problems.(Painter, 2014)


Lighting as one can understand by the name refers to the controlling of various light sources in a scene or shots,The lighting specialist use storyboards, script and understand the directors view by different means so they can all this is done before the lighting is set up because it is important to understand the directors view before trying to produce it graphically and in order to do that the camera position and angles, the size and placemnt of the frame the height at which the camera may be all of these have to be taken into consideration. Once the view is clear and decided the lighting artist by the help of key light, point light, fill light and rim light create the to achieve the wanted effect which can be further manipulated by various properties.

Lighting is one of the very important aspects of 3D graphics it adds a character to the setup, here is an example of image before and after adding lights:


(Brandom, 2013)

It can be seen above how before the lights were added there are no reflections, refractions or shadows, however, after adding the lights there is a dept created in the frame that gives a more realistic effect to the whole animation.

Now there are many types of lights some of which are omni lights, spot lights, direct lights and skylight, however he three point lighting is one of the most effective and useful one.

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(frameforest, 2011)

The above pictures show the effect and the setup of the 3 point lighting system. Lighting enhances the overall 3D effect of the image it highlights and gives dept and shadow the the model making it look more realistic.


Rendering is the process of genenrating an image from a 2d or 3d model by the means of computer programs out of all the process rendering is the most technically complexe but is easier to understand when you think of it as a picture that needs to be developed before it can be displayed. the models are nothing but a mathemetical representation of a 3d object in a 3 dimentional space.

“The term ‘rendering’ happens when a 3D software packages render engine translates a scene from a mathematical approximation to a finalized 2D image.  During this process the entirety of the scenes elements, including, spatial, texturing and lighting information are combined to determine the colour value of each pixel in the flattened image.” Slick, J.

There are 2 types of rendering whos only difference is the speed at which they render, real time rendering which is used in games and programs as such as they need the graphics to be in motion and hence has to have 18- 20 frames per second in order to do that, some programs have already computed backgrounds to improve graphics. offline or prerendering is in like animations and movies as it doesnt have to be rendered there as time is a priority and the images can be highly detailed and photorealistic.(Huff’n’Puff, 2015)

There are 3 techniques of rendering

  • Scanline rendering: which is used for real time rendering as its the quickest.
  • Raytracing rendering: which traces one or more ray of light from every pixel.
  • Radiosity rendering: simulates surface colour by accounting for indirect illumination giving the scene its graduated shadows and colour bleeding.


Composition is the process of bringing rendered elements together from different sources to form a visual that can be a still or animated picture. There are 3 types of composition methods:

  • Node based
  • Layers based
  • Deep compositing

Node-based compositing links media objects and effects in a ‘tree’ structure on a procedural map.


(Layer based and Node based compositing software, no date)

P0011_I002 (1).png(Frederic, 2227)


Layer based compositing has a separate layer for each of the media objects, each layer is placed over the previous layer but because of this layer compositing is not used in complex composites specially 3D.

Deep compositing is comparatively recent but is more preffered, it s like layer based compositing but instead of just having 2 axis and being a flat image it even has a Z axis which enables us to place image at various Z axis points creating more realistic animations. (Huff’n’Puff, 2015)



Rose, L. (2014) Democratisation in the 3D graphics industry. Available at: (Accessed: 15 February 2017).
Ojo, E. (2015) History of 3D graphics, democratization in 3D graphics industry and Ptex in asset creation. Available at: (Accessed: 15 February 2017).
Painter, T. (2014) Ptex, the other side of texturing. Available at: (Accessed: 15 February 2017).
Brandom, R. (2013) Throwing shade: How Pixar changed the way light works for ‘monsters university’. Available at: (Accessed: 15 February 2017).
frameforest (2011) Frameforest Filmschool: 3 point lighting. Available at: (Accessed: 15 February 2017).
Slick, J. (2015). What is Rendering? 15 feb, 2017).
Huff’n’Puff (2015) 3D production pipeline: Lighting, rendering & Compositing. Available at:
Layer based and Node based compositing software (no date) Available at: (Accessed: 15 February 2017).
Frederic, G. door (2227) VFX back to basics series: 8. What is compositing? Available at: (Accessed: 15 February 2017).